J Psychopharmacol. 2009 Jun 1.
Sex differences and the effect of gaboxadol and zolpidem on EEG power spectra in NREM and REM sleep.
Dijk D, James L, Peters S, Walsh J, Deacon S.
AbstractHypnotics that interact with the GABAA receptor have marked effects on the electroencephalogram (EEG) during sleep. It is not known whether the effects of hypnotics on EEG power spectra differ between the sexes. The effects of 5, 10 and 15 mg of gaboxadol (GBX) and 10 mg of zolpidem (ZOL) on EEG power spectra were assessed in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 5-way cross-over design study using a phase-advance model of transient insomnia. Sleep stage specific EEG power spectra were computed in 36 men and 45 women. GBX enhanced power density in delta and theta activity in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and suppressed sleep spindle activity in NREM sleep. The increase of delta and theta activity in NREM and REM sleep was significantly larger for women than for men but the suppression of spindle activity did not differ between the sexes. After ZOL administration, no sex differences were observed in the reduction of delta and theta activity in NREM sleep, but the increase in sleep spindle activity in NREM sleep was greater in women than in men. These sex dependent and differential effects of GBX and ZOL may be related to their differential affinity for GABAA receptor subtypes and their modulation by neurosteroids.